From the Notebook.
The Notebook is a collection of scribbles on various topics that have yet to find themselves permanently included in the wiki.
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- Entropy: Or Irreversibility, a lack of order or predictability, gradual decline into disorder.
- False Vacuum: An hypothetical vacuum(space devoid of matter) that is not entirely stable. If a small region of the universe reached a more stable vacuum, this change would spread.
- Great Filter: With no evidence of intelligent life other than ourselves, it appears that the process of starting with a star and ending with "advanced explosive lasting life" must be unlikely.
- Von Neumann probes: Or Universal Assemblers, A spacecraft capable of replicating itself.
- Final anthropic principle: Intelligent information-processing must come into existence in the Universe, and, once it comes into existence, will never die out.
- Mathematical universe hypothesis: Or Tegmark Universe, our external physical reality is a mathematical structure consisting of starting conditions with rules about how they are to evolve. Any universe that corresponds to a logically coherent mathematical object exists, but universes exist “more”(in some sense) in proportion to their underlying mathematical simplicity.
- Liminality: The quality of ambiguity, or disorientation, that occurs during a middle stage, or a threshold. Liminal places can range from borders and frontiers to crossroads and airports, which people pass through but do not live in.
- Causality: Relationship between a cause and an effect, where the effect is a direct consequence of the cause.
- Eternal Return: A theory that the universe and all existence and energy has been recurring, and will continue to recur, in a self-similar form an infinite number of times across infinite time or space.
- Super now: A type of prediction taking things that are happening now and imagining that the future will be just like now, only “more extreme.”
- Teleology: The study of things that happen for the sake of their future consequences. The fallacious meaning of it is that events are the result of future events.
- Prediction: Statement or claim that a particular event will occur in the future in more certain terms than a forecast.
- Equinox: Twice a year, around 20 March and 22 September, when daytime and nighttime are of approximately equal duration all over the planet.
- Solstice: Twice a year, when either hemisphere has the most sunlight of the year(summer solstice) or the least sunlight of the year(winter solstice) for any place other than the Equator.
- Occam's Razor: When several theories are able to explain the same observations, Occam's razor suggests the one making the fewest assumptions.
- Kolmogorov complexity: The length of the shortest possible program to output a given object.
- Kardashev scale: A measure of a civilization's level of technological advancement based on the amount of energy used for communication.
- Levenshtein Distance: A string metric for measuring the difference between two sequences, or comparing the similarity of two words.
- Bechdel test: A method for evaluating the portrayal of women in fiction. It asks whether a work features at least two women who talk to each other about something other than a man.
- Finkbeiner test: A checklist proposed to help journalists avoid gender bias in media articles about women in science.
- Ship of Theseus: A thought experiment that raises the question of whether an object that has had all of its components replaced remains fundamentally the same object.
- Goodhart’s law: When a measure becomes a target, it ceases to be a good measure.
- Cargo Cult: When you follow the instructions but don’t understand the process.
- Compressed Air Energy Storage: A way to store energy generated at one time for use at another time using compressed air.
- Carbon Fiber Tank: Brittle and can split under sufficient stress, but creates no shrapnel when it does so. Carbon-fiber tanks safely hold air at a pressure somewhere around 4500 psi, making them comparable to steel tanks.
- Stirling Engine: A quiet heat engine that is operated by a cyclic compression and expansion and a flywheel, generating no emissions.
- The Paris Compressed Air Power Network: The city of Paris once had an extensive network for distributing power by compressed air which served more than 10,000 customers and remained in use for 100 years.
- Bicycle With Shaft: Experimental bicyle design that used a shaft connecting the crank to the back wheel instead of a drive chain.
- Rectenna: A circuit that produces a voltage by harvesting the energy from the electromagnetic fields around us trough an antenna.
- Flettner ship: A rotor ship is a type of ship designed to use a rotor sail mounted with its axis vertical. When the wind blows from the side, the Magnus effect creates a forward thrust.
- Magnus Effect: The Magnus effect is a force acting on a spinning body in a moving airstream, which acts perpendicular to both the direction of the airstream and of the rotor axis.
- Thermoelectric generator: A device that converts temperature differences directly into electrical energy through the Seebeck effect.