Assorted notes on the English language.

English Prime is a version of the English language that excludes all forms of the verb "to be", including all conjugations, contractions and archaic forms. Its goal is to leads to a less dogmatic style of language that reduces the possibility of misunderstanding or conflict.

Bourland sees specifically the "identity" and "predication" functions as pernicious, but advocates eliminating all forms for the sake of simplicity. In the case of the "existence" form (and less idiomatically, the "location" form), one might (for example) simply substitute the verb "exists". Other copula-substitutes in English include taste, feel, smell, sound, grow, remain, stay, and turn, among others a user of E-prime might use instead of "to be".

Identity The cat is my only pet
Class membershipGarfield is a cat
Class inclusion A cat is an animal
Predication The cat is furry
Auxiliary The cat is sleeping
Existence There is a cat
Location The cat is on the mat

For example, instead of saying, "I am depressed," a student was asked to eliminate that emotionally primed verb and to say something else, such as, "I feel depressed when ..." or "I tend to make myself depressed about ..."

Spivak Pronoun

The Spivak pronouns are a set of gender-neutral pronouns in English.

Masculine he laughs I hugged him his heart warmed that is his
Feminine she laughsI hugged her her heart warmed that is hers
They(s.) they laughI hugged themtheir heart warmedthat is theirs
Spivak e laughs I hugged em eir heart warmed that is eirs
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